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HYBRID OXEN                                   317

The members of the Bovine section or Oxen are to be dis-
tinguished from other hollow-horned Knminants by their stouter
build, and by the fact that the horns stand out from the sides of
the skull and are simply curved, not twisted ; and smooth, not
annulate like those of other Huminants. The muffle is nakeds
broads and moist. The Oxen are widely distributed; but are
entirely absent from the Australian region, and from. South
America and Madagascar.
The true Oxen are perhaps best considered to form but a
single genus, BOB. They have, however, been divided into a number
of genera. Even the supposed aberrant ^dnoa depressicornis of
Celebes hardly differs sufficiently to warrant its separation. In
favour of this view, too, is the extraordinary ease with which
different " genera ** will cross with each other and produce fertile
offspring. The following is the pedigree of an animal lately
living in the Zoological Society's Gardens. The female offspring
of a male -Zebu and a female Gayal was mated with a male Bison.
The female calf was again mated with a Bison and produced a
calf, also a female, which contained therefore the three species,
£>o$ indriciJis, H-ibos frontalis, and JBison americanus. It is clearly
unwise in view of this fact to insist too much upon generic dis-
tinctions in any of those types.1
Of this genus the Oriental Gaur (&OB gaurua\ the Gayal (.51
frontalis), and the Banteng (JB. sondaicus) form a well-marked
section, characterised by their dark coloration and "by the some-
what flattened horns.
The Gaur, Bos ffaurusf has a more concave forehead than its
allies; the horns are less curved, than those of the Banteng, and
less so than the horns of the Gayal (J&os frontctfis). It inhabits
the Indian Peninsula; and extends through Burmah to the ex-
tremity of the Malay Peninsula. The Malay name of this
animal is Sakiutan, which simply means wild cattle. It chiefly
frequents "wooded hills and is an excellent mountain climber.
J3os frontalis, the Indian Gayal, has a white caudal disc like
the last species., but the forehead is flat and the horns curve but
little. It is chiefly known as a tame animal, and its occurrence
in the wild state has been doubted. It has furthermore been
suggested that it is merely a tame race of the Gaur altered
1 JL.   D.  B«rtlett,   " On some Hybrid Bovine  Animals  bred  in the Society's
' J„oe. Zool* &0e. 1884, p. 899.